什么是宾语从句,什么是宾语从句?如何区别

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[编辑本段]宾语从句(版本一)

在句子中起宾语作用的从句叫做宾语从句.宾语从句分为三类:动词的宾语从句,介词的宾语从句和形容词的宾语从句.

时态什么是宾语从句:

1.主句用一般现在时,从句可用任意时态。

2.主句用过去时,从句用过去某个时态。

3.主句用过去时,从句是真理时,只用一般现在时。

一、宾语从句的连接词

从属连词

连接宾语从句的从属连词主要有that,if,whether.

that引导表示陈述句的宾语从句,而if和whether引导表示“是否”的宾语从句.

He told me that he would go to the college the next year

他告诉我他下一年上大学.

I don’t know if there will be a bus any more.

我不知道是否还会有公交车.

Nobody knew whether he could pass the exam.

没人知道他是否会通过考试.

连接代词

连接代词主要有who, whom ,whose ,what ,whoever ,whomever ,whosever, whatever, whichever等.

连接代词一般指疑问,但what, whatever除了指疑问外,也可以指陈述.

Do you know who has won Red Alert game?

你知道谁赢了这一局红警游戏吗?

I don’t know whom you should depend on.

我不知道你该依靠谁.

The book will show you what the best CEOs know.

这本书会告诉你最好的执行总裁该了解些什么.

Have you determined whichever you should buy,a Motorola or Nokia cell phone?

你决定好是买诺基亚还是摩托罗拉的电话了吗?

连接副词

连接副词主要有when,where,why,how,whenever,wherever,however等.

He didn’t tell me when we should meet again.

他没有告诉我什么时候我们能再见面.

Could you please tell me how you read the new panel?

你能告诉我怎么用这个新的操作盘吗?

None of us knows where these new parts can be bought.

没有人知道这些的新的零件能在哪里买到.

二、动词的宾语从句

大多数动词都可以带宾语从句

We all expect that they will win , for members of their team are stronger.

我们都预料他们会赢,因为他们的队员更强壮.

He told us that they would help us though the whole work.

他告诉我们在整个工作中,他都会帮忙的.

部分“动词+副词”结构也可以带宾语从句

I have found out that all the tickets for the concert have been sold out.

我发现这场音乐会的所有票都卖光了.

Can you work out how much we will spend during the trip?

你能计算出这次旅行我们将花费多少钱吗?

动词短语也可以带宾语从句

常见的这些词有:

make sure确保 make up one’s mind下决心 keep in mind牢记

Make sure that there are no mistakes in your papers before you turn them in.

在上交试卷前确保没有任何错误.

可运用形式宾语it代替的宾语从句

①动词find,feel,consider,make,believe等后面有宾语补足语的时候,则需要用it做形式宾语而将that宾语从句后置.

I think it necessary that we take plenty of hot water every day .

我认为每天多喝开水是有必要的.

I feel it a pity that I haven’t been to the get-together.

我没去聚会,感觉非常遗憾.

I have made it a rule that I keep diaries.

我每天写日记成了习惯.

We all find it important that we (should) make a quick decision about this mater.

我们都认为对这件事马上做出决定很重要.

②有些动词带宾语从句时寻要在宾语与从句前加it

这类动词主要有:hate, take , owe, have, see to.

I hate it when they with their mouths full of food.

我讨厌他们满嘴食物时说话.

He will have it that our plan is really practical.

他会认为我们的计划确实可行.

We take it that you will agree with us.

我们认为你会同意我们的.

When you start the engine, you must see to it that car is in neutral.

开启发动机时, 一定要使汽车的离合器处于空挡位置.

③若宾语从句是wh-类,则不可用it代替

We all consider what you said to be unbelievable.

我们都认为你所说的是不可信的.

We discovered what we had learned to be valuable.

我们发现我们所学到的东西都是有用的.

三、介词的宾语从句

用wh-类的介词宾语从句

We are talking about whether we admit students into our club.

我们正在讨论是否让学生加入我们的俱乐部.

The new book is about how Shenzhou 6 manned spaceship was sent up into space.

这本新书是关于神州6号载人航天飞船是如何升入太空的.

用that,if引导的介词宾语从句

有时候except,but,besides三个介词后可见到that引导的宾语从句

I know nothing about my new neighbor except that he used to work with a company.

对于我的新邻居我只知道他曾在一家公司上班,其他一无所知.

四、形容词的宾语从句

常用来引导宾语从句的形容词有: sure,certain,glad,please,happy,sorry,afraid,satisfied,surprised

I am sure I will pass the exam.

我确信我会通过考试.

I am sorry that I have troubled you so long.

很抱歉我这么长时间在打扰你.

He is glad that Li Ming went to see him when he was ill.

他很高兴在他生病的时候李明能去看望他.

五、if,whether在宾语从句中的区别

① if和whether在作“是否”解时,引导宾语从句常放在动词know,ask,care,wonder,find out等之后,介词后一般不用if

② 少数动词,如:leave,put,discuss,doubt后的宾语从句常用whether.

③ whether后可以加or not,但是if不可以.

④ 在不定式前只能用whether.

(如:I can’t decide whether to stay. 我不能决定是否留下。)

⑤ 避免歧异时,我们常用whether而不用if.

六、哪些宾语从句不可以省略引导词that

当that作learn,suggest,explain,agree,wonder,prove,mean,state,feel,hold等动词的宾语时;

当宾语从句较长时;

当主语状语置于主句尾,宾语从句之前时;

当主语谓语动词(包括非谓语动词)与宾缉甫光晃叱浩癸彤含廓语从句之间有插入语时;

当一个动词带有两个或两个以上宾语从句时,此时第一个that可以省略,第二个that不可以省略;

当宾语从句中的主语是this,that或this,that做主语的定语时;

当宾语从句是双宾语中的直接宾语时;

当宾语从句的主语是非谓语动词或主语从句时;

当主语中的谓语动词是固定词组时;

当宾语从句有it做其先行词时;

在直接引语中,转述分句把宾语从句隔开时.

七、宾语从句的否定转移

主句的谓语动词是think,believe,imagine,suppose,consider,espect,fancy,guess等,并且主句的主语是第一人称而且为一般现在时,从句的否定词一般要转移到主句上来,其反义疑问句一般与宾语从句一致.

I don’t think he will come to my party.而不能说成I think he won’t come to my party.

我认为他不会来我的舞会.

I don’t believe that man is killed by Jim,is he?

我认为那个人不是Jim所杀的,是不是?

如果宾语从句中有某个含有否定意义的形容词或副词,其反义疑问句要用肯定形式.

We find that he never listens to the teacher carefully,does he?

我们发现他从来不仔细听老师讲课,是不是?

八、宾语从句的时态和语序

当主句为现在时或将来时,宾语从句的时态一般不受主句的时态所影响.

当主句为过去时

①从句用一般过去时或过去进行时表示与主句谓语动词动作同时发生

I only knew he was studying in a western country,but I didn’t know what country he was in.

我只知道他当时在西方的一个国家读书,可不知道是哪个国家.

He asked me if I was reading the story The Old Man and the Sea when he was in.

他问我他进来的时候我是否正在读<<老人与海>>.

②从句过去完成时表示该动作发生在主句谓语动作之前

He told me that he had told Mary about the meeting already.

他告诉我他已经把有关会议的事情告诉的了Mary.

③从句谓语用过去将来时表示该动作发生在主句谓语动作之后

The reporter asked if the government would take necessary measures to put down the to-do.

记者问政府是否会采取必要的措施镇压骚乱.

如果从句是一个客观真理,那么从句的时态不根据主句的时态而变化

The teacher said that the moon goes around the earth yesterday.

老师昨天说月亮绕着地球转.

当宾语从句的引导词是who,which,what,when,where,how,why等表疑问时,不能按正常语序安排,经常将这类引导词置于句首

Who do you think the public might choose as their favorite singer this year?

你认为今年公众会选谁为他们最喜欢的歌手.

[编辑本段]宾语从句(版本二)

学习宾语从句要抓住三要素:连接词、语序和时态。

1.连接词

连接词一般都是that(指事务或人),which(指事),who(指人)

1.从句为陈述句,常选择连接词that或将that省略,直接与主句相连。

2.从句为一般疑问句,常选择连接词if或whether。在 whether … or not 结构中不能用 if 替换。

3.从句为特殊疑问句,常选择what,when,where,which,who,how等的疑问代、副词作连接词。

注意:当who为主语时,句式为:who+谓语+其他

2.判断时态情况:

1.主句是一般现在时,从句为各种时态情况。

2.主句是一般过去时,从句为各种相应过去时态注意:从句描绘客观事实,用一般现在时。

eg:

1. The teacher told the children that the sun____ round.

A. was B. is C. were D. are

2. I believe that our team____ the basketball match.

A. win B. won C. will win D. wins

3. I don’t know____ to visit the old man.

A. whether B. if C. that D. who

4.The soldiers soon reached( )was once an old temple( )the villagers used as a school.

A.which;where B.what;which C.where;which D.what;where

答:选B,动词reach后接宾语从句,从句缺少宾语,where不可,which引导宾语从句时表疑问含义“哪一个…”而此句中并非疑问含义,不知道哪一座庙宇,而是用what从句表陈述含义,意“过去的一座旧庙宇”;temple后为对其修饰的定语从句,用关系代词which代替,并在从句中作动词used的宾语,use sth. as…“把…用作…

[编辑本段]宾语从句(版本三)

宾语从句,在复合句中作宾语,位于及物动词后。

eg.

Tell him which class you are in .

Do you know what he likes?

注:

(1)主、从句时态一致:

主句谓语过去时,从句相应过去时;

He answered that he was listening to me.

主句谓语现在时,从句时态任所需;

eg. He says (that) he will leave a message on my desk.

They know (that) he is working hard.

具体过去永不变,真理格言现在时;

eg.He told me that he was born in 1980.

Father told me that practice makes perfect .

(2)否定前移,及完成反意问句

在think / believe / suppose / guess / imagine / expect等动词后跟宾语从句否定式时,应转移到主句上去,完成反意问句时,应与从句主、谓保持一致。(注: 否定前移的条件是,主句主语是第一人称)

eg. I don't think you are right ,are you ?

I don't believe they have finished their work yet,have they ?

(3)运用虚拟语气的情况

在表示:

建议 suggest , advise

要求demand 、desire、require、request、propose;

决定 decide;

命令 order、command;

坚决主张 insist;

等动词后跟宾语从句,用(should)+v.(虚拟语气)

eg. I suggested that you(should)study hard.

He ordered that we should go out at once.

(4)宾语从句后置情况

如果宾语从句后有宾语补语,用it作形式宾语,把宾语从句后置

eg.You may think it strange that he would live there.

(5)宾从中that不可省略的情况

宾语从句that常可省略,但在以下情况下不能省略

A.当主句谓语动词带有两个或两个以上宾语从句时,可以省略第一个that,其他不能省略。

eg.I believe(that)you have done your best and that things will get better.

B.当it作形式宾语时

eg.She made it clear that she had nothing to do with him.

C.当宾语从句前置时

eg.That our team will win,I believe.

[编辑本段]宾语从句(版本四)

一、定义和宾从例句分析

宾语从句就是一个句子作动词或介词的宾语。

A 作动词的宾语:

I heard the news.

主语 谓语动词 名词作宾语

I heard that he would come here later on.

主语 谓语动词 一个句子作宾语---宾语从句

B 作介词的宾语:

He said nothing about the plan.

主语 谓语动词 代词作动词的宾语 介词 名词作介词的宾语

He said nothing about who broke the window last night.

主语 谓语动词 代词作动词的宾语 介词 一个句子作介词的宾语

二、带有宾语从句的复合句的构成

带有宾语从句的复合句就是用连接词把一个主句和一个宾语从句连接在一起。连接词有:that(可省略),what, who, when, where, why, which, if, whether, how.

1 He suggested (that) we should clean the corridor every day.

宾语

2 He told me (that) he would leave Dalian airport at 8pm.

间接宾语 直接宾语

3 He told me where he was going to travel that summer.

间接宾语 直接宾语

4 He wanted to know what the manager had said at the meeting.

who hadn’t passed the exam.

when she would leave this building.

why she cried last night.

where she was going to study.

which student was his partner in the short play.

if (whether) Tom could play basketball with him that morning.

how she managed to solve the problem.

why water flows from a high position to a lower position.

在例子4中,当主句是过去时态时(一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时,过去完成时),从句根据不同情况必须使用过去时态的一种,(大自然的现象和真理除外)。

5 He is wanting to know what I can cook for dinner.

who broke the window yesterday.

when I can have a holiday.

why I failed the exam yesterday.

where I should have dinner with my friend tonight.

which book is the best one.

if (whether) I have passed the exam.

how my cat escaped from the room last night.

在例子5中,当主语是现在时态时(一般现在时,现在进行时,一般将来时,现在完成时),从句可根据不同情况使用各种时态。

三、注意

A 宾语从句必须用陈述语序。

False: He is wondering when can he finish this difficult job.

Right: He is wondering when he can finish this difficult job.

B 有时候可以用it 作形式宾语,而把真正的宾语从句放在后面。

Bad: I thought that he could finish this job in just two hours impossible.

Good: I thought it impossible that he could finish this job in just two hours.

Bad: He left whether we should continue this project to my judgment.

Good: He left it to my judgment whether we should continue this project.

C 带有宾语从句的复合句的否定形式一般是否定主句。

Bad: I think he doesn’t like the English teacher.

Good: I don’t think he likes the English teacher.

D 主句一般过去时态,从句也要用过去时态;具体细节请看第一部分。

False: He wanted to know why he is crying in the corner.

Right: He wanted to know why he was crying in the corner.

宾语从句的点点滴滴 宾语从句是英语复合句中的其中非常重要的从句之一。它是用一个句子做另一个句子的宾语,将这个句子叫做宾语从句。宾语从句做介词或及物动词的宾语。现在从下列三个方面总结归纳如下:

一,引导词

A,由that 引导的陈述句性的宾语从句,在很多动词如say, think, wish , hope, see, believe, agree, expect, hear , feel等动词后。连词that只起连接作用,在从句中不做句子的成分,也无词汇意义,在口语中常被省略,但在大多数情况下还是以不省为好,特别是在笔语中。

例:I told him that he was wrong.

l在think,believe, suppose, expect等动词引起的宾语从句中,有时谓语尽管是否定意义,却不用否定形式,而将think 等动词变为否定形式。

例:I don’t think you are right. (我认为你做的不对)

l在许多带有复合宾语的句子中,that引导的宾语从句经常移到句子的后面,而用it做形式宾语。

例:We think it wrong that he told a lie to everyone (我认为他向每一个人撒谎是错误的)

B,由连词if、 whether 引导的表示“是否…”的宾语从句。Whether,if 在从句中不做句子的成分,一般情况下,whether和if 可以替换。

例:I don’t know if/whether he will come tomorrow.

The teacher asked if/whether we had finished the experiment.

l在介词后面的宾语从句中不用if引导

例:Everything depends on whether we have enough money。

l宾语从句中有or not时不用if引导.

例:I don’t know whether the movie star will come or not.

l和不定式连用作宾语时不用if引导.

例:Whether to go there or not hasn’t been decided.

C,由wh-引导的宾语从句。连接代词who,whom,whose, what, which,和连接副词when, where, why, how 等连接的宾语从句,它们在句中即有连接从句的作用,又在句中充当句子的成分。

例:Do you know which film they are talking about? (which做定语)

I don’t know where he lives. (where 做地点状语)

二,宾语从句的语序,

宾语从句从句的语序必须是陈述语序,既连接词+主语+谓语+其他成分

例:I believe that they will come soon.

He asked me whether I was a teacher.

They wanted to know what they can do for us.

二,宾语从句的时态。

宾语从句的时态受主句的限制,

既:主句是一般现在时态,从句根据实际情况而定。

主句是一般过去时态,从句用相应的过去的时态。如果从句的动作发生在主句之前,则从句要用过去完成时态。

例:

1)She says that she is a student.

She said that she was a student.

2)She says that she will fly to Japan in a week.

She said that she would fly to Japan in a week.

3)She says that she has finished her homework already.

She said that she had finished her homework already.

4)She says that she can sing a song in English.

She said that she could sing a song in English.

l如果宾语从句说的是客观真理、自然现象或事实时,这时宾语从句要用一般现在时态。

例:The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.

He told me that Japan is an island country.

lCould you tell me…是用来征询对方的意见,语气委婉,并不表示过去。

例:Could you tell me when we will visit the Histury Museum?

注意事项:

u由陈述句变成宾语从句时,要注意人称的变化。

例:She said: “I have been to England before.”

She said that she had been to England before.

She asked me: “Do you like maths?”

She asked me if I liked maths.

u宾语从句与简单句的交换。

由连接代词和连接副词引导的宾语从句,如果宾语从句的主语和主句的主语是同一个人时,可以用“疑问词+不定式

”做宾语的简单句结构。

例:I don’t know what I should do next.

I con’t know what to do next.

He didn’t know where he would live.

He didn’t know where to live.

DO SOME EXERCISES:

1.Can you see________?

A. what he’s reading B. what is he reading

C. what does he read D. he reads what

2.Does Jack come from Japan? Do you know?(合并成一个句子)

Do you know_____Jack _____from Japan?

3._What did your son say in the letter?

_He told me that he___ the Disney would the next day

A.will visit B. has visited

C. is going to visit D. would visit

4.He didn’t know__________

A.what’s the matter B.what the matter is

C. what was the matter D. what the matter was

5.Somebody called you just now,but I didn’t know____

A.who were they B. who they were

C. who was it D. who it was

6.I want to know_____

A.what is his name B. what’s his name

C. that his name is D. what his name is

7.---Could you tell me ___she is looking for?

---Her cousin,susan.

A.that B.whose C .who D.which

8.---What are you searching the Internet for?

---I’m trying to find out____.

A.What is the difference between SARS and BIRDFLU

B.How many persons have died in Iraq

C.How to protect our environment

D.Why is our Chinese team be able to beat Korea

9.Do you know___________?(谁正在唱歌)

10.Do you know___________?(她正在和谁谈话)

11.Do you know___________?(昨天发生了什么事)

The keys: 1 A.2 if ,comes.3D. 4 C. 5 D. 6 D. 7 C. 8 B

9 who is singing

10 who she is talking with

11 what happened yesterday

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